In 1970, the Muskie Act came into force in the state of California, always the leader in automobile emission regulation, and around this time, emission analysis in the automotive field became an important issue in engine development. Horiba's automobile emissions meters were introduced to leading automobile manufacturers of the world.
Air-pollution control
Water-contamination regulations
Automobile emissions regulations

Amended U.S. Clean Air Act (Muskie Act, automobile emission regulation) put into effect

Environmental Agency established

Environmental standards on water contamination decided by the Cabinet

Environmental standards on NO2/photochemical oxidants established

Limit established on volume of permissible automobile emissions (Weight regulation/mode 10)

Installation of HC meters in designated factories made mandatory

Widespread acid rain (3-4 days) in the Kanto District

Introduction of unleaded regular gasoline for automobiles

NOx regulation enforced on gasoline and LPG vehicles

NOx regulations imposed on diesel vehicles (passenger cars, buses, and trucks)(modes 10 and 11)

Installation of CO/HC meters made mandatory for certified factories

NOx environmental standards amended (Within or under 0.04-0.06 ppm zone per hour on daily average)

Basic policy for reduction of total volume of COD in Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay and the Seto Inland Sea established by the Prime Minister

The 4th term regulations on fixed origin of NOx (amendment of the Air Pollution Control Law) put into effect

Muskie Act
The state of California is known for its strict antipollution policies, and usually leads the way in environmental standards in the world. The Muskie Act--officially an amendment of the Clean Air Act--was about to be enacted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), an agency of the U.S. government, but was abandoned in 1974. Although it did not become law, the movement for legislating the Muskie Act was an epoch-making event that brought about change in the direction of automobile development among the world's automakers.

1943to1970 | 1970to1980 | 1980to1990 | 1990to2000

See also "The Environmental Innovations".
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